IISGNII गुरुर ब्रह्मा गुरुर विष्णु गुरुर देवो महेश्वरः गुरुः साक्षात्परब्रह्मा तस्मै श्री गुरुवे नमः


185.00 165.00

Name of the topics Hours Marks
1. Structure and Bonding
Hybridization in case of Methane, Ethane, Ethylene and Acetylene.
Bond lengths, bond angles and bond energies. Elementary ideas of
Inductive effect, Electromeric effect, Resonance effect,
Hyperconjugation (definition and examples). Hydrogen bonding in
organic compounds (with reference to alcohol) and its consequences.
2. Mechanism of Organic Reactions 7.5 10
Homolytic and heterolytic bond fission with examples. Electrophiles and
nucleophiles (definition and example both neutral and charged). Types
of organic reactions addition, substitution, elimination and
rearrangement. Reactive intermediates carbocations, carbanions, free
radicals, carbenes (formation, geometry and stability).
3. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds
Concept of isomerism. Types of isomerism with suitable examples.
Optical isomerism - elements of symmetry, molecular chirality,
enantiomers, stereogenic centre (Lactic acid as example). Optical
activity, chiral and achiral molecules with two stereogenic centres
(Tartaric acid) diastereoisomers, mesocompound. Resolution of
enantiomers - biological and chemical methods. Inversion, retention
and racemization. Asymmetric synthesis. Relative and absolute
configuration, sequence rule, D & L and R & S system of nomenclature.
Geometrical isomerism: E and Z system of nomenclature, geometric
isomerism in maleic acid, fumaric acid and 2-butene.
Conformational isomerism: Conformational analysis of ethane and
n-butane. Newman's projection and Sawhorse formulae. Difference
between configuration and conformation.
7.5 10
4. Alkanes
IUPAC nomenclature of branched and unbranched alkanes. Alkyl
group, methods of formation (Ethane) - Wurtz reaction, Kolbe's
reaction, decarboxylation of carboxylic acid. Physical properties and
chemical reactions of alkanes: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation,
isomerization, cyclization, aromatization, pyrolysis and cracking
oxidation. L.P.G. and octane number. Mechanism of free radical
chlorination of methane.
Cycloalkanes: Nomenclature, Baeyer's strain theory and its limitations.
Ring strain in small rings cyclopropane and cyclobutane. Theory of
stainless rings. Conformational analysis of cyclohexane, axial and
equatorial bonds.